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LXX Language Tools

There are a number of reference works available to aid student reading the Greek Old Testament. While Classical Greek and New Testament Greek lexicons are of some value in studying the LXX, there are three primary lexicons of the LXX.

  • Taylor LexiconBernard A. Taylor, The Analytical Lexicon to the Septuagint (Hendrickson Publishers; Expanded edition, 2010). This useful resource is really more of a parsing guide than a lexicon. It parses (in alphabetical order) all words found in Rahlfs's Septuaginta. This new edition also includes complete definitions for each Greek word from the Lust, Eynikel, and Hauspie Lexicon. Buy from Amazon.caBuy from
  • Johan Lust, Erik Eynikel, and Katrin Hauspie (eds.), Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint (Revised edition; American Bible Society, 2004). This work has entries for every work found in Rahlfs's Septuaginta. This revised one-volume edition brings together the revised text of the first volume published in 1992, and the slightly reworked text of the second part published in 1996. Buy from Amazon.caBuy from
  • Takamitsu Muraoka, A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint (Peeters, 2009). This recently completed lexicon is by far the best lexicon of the LXX available as it provides far more than just English glosses and parsing. Based on the Göttingen Septuagint where available, it includes data such as synonyms, antonyms, idiomatic expressions, as well as syntagmatic information how words are used in combination. Entries are illustrated with copious quotes, most of which are translated.This is an indispensable tool for students of the Septuagint, the New Testament, Hellenistic Judaism, and the Greek language.  Buy from Amazon.caBuy from

While there are no complete reference grammars of Septuagintal Greek (in this regard, more advanced NT Greek grammars are useful), there are a few smaller studies devoted to the language of the LXX:

  • H. St. J Thackeray, A Grammar of the Old Testament in Greek: According to the Septuagint. Vol. 1: Introduction, Orthography, and Accidence (Cambridge University Press, 1909; reprint G. Olms, 1978). This classic is difficult to find. may have it used. You may also want to check Eisenbrauns or Dove Books.
  • F. C. Conybeare, Grammar of Septuagint Greek: With Selected Readings, Vocabularies, and Updated Indexes (Hendrickson; reissue edition, 2001). A reprint of Selections from the Septuagint (1905), this work includes and introduction to the LXX, a grammar section primarily covering accidence and syntax, followed by selected readings with in-depth introductions and full textual and grammatical notes. Buy from Amazon.caBuy from

An invaluable tool for studying the LXX is a concordance. The classic concordance by Hatch and Redpath is still the standard, and Muraoka's reverse index makes it essential to any study of a book's translation technique. While you may be able to find these works as separate works, they come combined in one volume:

  • Edwin Hatch, Henry A. Redpath, A Concordance to the Septuagint: And the other Greek Versions of the Old Testament - Including the Apocryphal Books (Second edition, two volumes in one; Includes Muraoka, "Hebrew/Aramaic Index"; Baker Academic, 1998). Buy from Amazon.caBuy from
Last Updated on Friday, 04 December 2009 13:15