Codex

My musings on Biblical Studies, Biblical Hebrew, Dead Sea Scrolls, Septuagint, Popular Culture, Religion, Software, and pretty much anything else that interests me!





Old Testament Commentary Survey

  • Searches



Archive for July, 2005

Interview with Hanan Eshel about the Leviticus Fragments

20th July 2005

I had the absolute privilege of interviewing Professor Hanan Eshel earlier today for an article I am writing for a Canadian national newspaper (ChristianWeek). While I will blog a fuller summary in the near future once I go through the interview again (and will probably blog a transcript of the entire interview once the story is published), I wanted to note some highlights so as to clarify some misperceptions and perhaps correct some of the speculation surrounding this amazing discovery:

  1. Number of Fragments. There were actually four fragments discovered. One fragment is virtually unreadable, and while a couple letters on it can be deciphered, it is unlikely it will ever be identified. The second is the small fragment containing Leviticus 23:38-39 (a colour picture of it was released). The third and fourth fragments have been joined to make the larger fragment containing Leviticus 23:41-44 and 24:16-18 (a black and white picture of it was released). The three identified fragments clearly belong to the same manuscript that likely contained the entire Pentateuch/Torah.
  2. Date & Provenance. While Eshel did not discover the scroll fragments in situ, he did have the opportunity to thoroughly examine the cave in Nahal Arugot where they were discovered. During his examination of the cave they found further evidence associating the cave with the Bar Kokhba revolt. This fact and the clearly post-Herodian Jewish script suggest an early second-century CE date.
  3. Forgeries? While Carbon-14 tests have not yet been done on the fragments, based on his own physical inspection and other factors, Eshel is 110% certain they are not forgeries.
  4. Should He Have Done it? The issue has been raised by some whether or not Eshel should have purchased the fragments from the Bedouin in the first place, as this may encourage further exploration and looting. While he wondered whether or not he should have contacted the Antiquities Authority and left it at that, he does not know what they would have done with the information. “Even if I am doing mistakes, I am doing what I can, and I think I acted in the right way.” In regards to encouraging looting, he commented “What can I say? … I will do everything I can to stop the looting of caves in the Judaean desert.” His primary motivation was the preservation of the fragments — and in this I do not think he can be faulted.

I will keep you up-to-date in regards to my article and stay tuned for a fuller summary of my interview (and possibly even a full transcript).

As an aside, my reconstruction of the fragments appears to be correct, though I will have to modify a few comments here and there with the new information I have from the interview (Note that my reconstruction has been updated).

Posted in Dead Sea Scrolls, Hanan Eshel, Leviticus, Leviticus Scroll, News | Comments Off

Egypt Demands Rosetta Stone and Other Artifacts Returned

19th July 2005

The Jerusalem Post and a number of other news sources (see the AP stories here and here) report that Egypt is demanding that the Fitzwilliam Museum in Britain return the Rosetta Stone, the three-foot monument containing an engraving in honour of Pharoah. The engraved text is triligual — hieroglyphics, demotic, and Greek — which helped scholars decipher hieroglyphics. The basalt monument bears an inscription dated to the 9th year (196 BCE) of Ptolemy V Epiphanes (210-180 BCE). In addition, Egypt also demanded the Catholic University of Brussels to return a relief taken from the an excavation in the 1960s. If they do not comply, then Egypt may take action such as cutting off any archaeological work they may be involved in.

This demand is the latest in a series of attempts by Egypt to recover ancient treasures. Other artifacts Egypt is wanting to see returned include the bust of Nefertiti from Berlin’s Egyptian Museum; the Zodiac from the French Louvre; the bust of Hemiunu from the Hildesheim Museum; and the bust of Ankhkhaf from the Boston Museum of Fine Arts.

I would think that such treasures should be returned to their native lands, with the condition that there are proper facilities and means to preserve them (which is not an issue for Egypt).

Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off

Hebrew Bible Related Reviews from RBL

18th July 2005

As some other blogs have noted, the latest Review of Biblical Literature has been distributed. Reviews of books relating to the Old Testament and other Second Temple topics are listed below. Of particular interest are the reviews of Handbook to a Grammar for Biblical Grammar, which is the companion volume to Seow’s excellent deductive grammar (for a survey of different grammars, see my Introductory Hebrew Grammars page). Also noteworthy are the reviews of the re-issue of Mowinckel’s classic presentation of a cult-functional approach to the psalms, The Psalms in Israel’s Worship — especially since they are by noted psalms scholars.

  • Janet Howe Gaines, Forgiveness in a Wounded World: Jonah’s Dilemma. Review by Thomas Bolin
  • Jennifer S. Green, G. Brooke Lester, and Joseph F. Scrivner, Handbook To A Grammar for Biblical Hebrew: Revised Edition. Reviews by Daniel Bonilla-Rios and John Engle
  • Dirk J. Human and Cas J. A. Vos, eds., Psalms and Liturgy. Review by Dennis Tucker
  • Nathan MacDonald, Deuteronomy and the Meaning of Monotheism. Review by Yairah Amit
  • Sigmund Mowinckel, The Psalms in Israel’s Worship. Reviews by William Brown and Erhard Gerstenberger
  • Jacob Neusner, Judaism and the Interpretation of Scripture: Introduction to the Rabbinic Midrash. Review by Rivka Kern-Ulmer
  • Jacob Neusner, Transformations in Ancient Judaism: Textual Evidence for Creative Responses to Crisis. Review by Gabriel Levy

Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off

A Step-by-Step Reconstruction of the New Leviticus Fragments

18th July 2005

Tim Bulkeley over at SansBlog asked me to expand my analysis of the newly-discovered fragments of Leviticus by describing a bit of the processes involved in identifying and reconstructing the fragments. I thought that I would entertain his request, though I should note up front that I am by no means an expert in this! My interest in the reconstruction of Dead Sea Scroll fragments is a tangent of my work on the so-called Qumran Psalms scrolls for my dissertation that combines my interest in computer technology and really old stuff!

At any rate, I thought I would outline some of the steps in identifying, reconstructing, and analyzing scroll fragments using the Leviticus fragments by way of illustration. (Since I am not an expert at this, I would love to get feedback from those who are!)

STEP 1: Identification

The first (obvious) step in reconstructing a fragment is figuring out what it is a fragment from! This is done by identifying some of the extant letters and words on the fragment and then performing some searches with various computer software to see if you can locate the text.

Image Adjustment
Before you can identify some of the letters it may be necessary to make some adjustments to the image to bring the letters into sharper relief or even to make the fragment readable in the first place! Note that I am dealing with working with images and not the actual original fragments. This is preferable in most cases as the originals may not be readable and (more significantly) they are likely not accessible! High resolution images may be obtained from various sources, including the Ancient Biblical Manuscript Center at Claremont.

I prefer to do my work on the images with Adobe Photoshop. Within Photoshop you can adjust the input and output levels (using the histogram feature), brightness/contrast, among other things to make the text more readable. While the low resolution images of the Leviticus fragments I tracked down on the web are pretty clear, they can be made even clearer by adjusting them slightly:


The adjusted image is a bit easier to read. At times the difference may be dramatic. Compare the two images of PAM 42.141 where the text becomes readable only by adjusting the original image:

Identifying the Text
Once you can read the fragment — or at least some of the fragment — then you can start the process of identification. This is a bit easier for biblical fragments since there are a number of excellent databases of the Hebrew Bible to begin the identification process. I prefer to use Accordance Bible Software for my searches, though Logos Bible Software and BibleWorks, among others, are more than adequate (see my Software for Biblical Studies Pages for descriptions of these and other biblical studies software programs).

With the small Leviticus fragment I did a search for ‏כל־נדריכם “all your votive offerings” which is easily readable in the first line of the fragment. This search discovers that Lev 23:38 is the only occurrence of this phrase in the Hebrew Bible (I also searched a Qumran database with no matches). At that point the rest of the readable words can be checked in the context to see if you have found a match. In the case of the small Leviticus fragment, the other readable words from it easily fit the context of Lev 23:38-39. The same was the case for the larger Leviticus fragment (it is actually two fragments that have been joined), since there were quite a few readable words to make a certain identification with Lev 23:40-44; 24:16-18. You often don’t have as much to work with, however! In my work on 1Q12 (1QPsc) I identified a fragment 8 based on two readable letters and portions of another letter (see my Proposed Reconstruction).

STEP 2: Reconstruction

Once you have the text identified, the next step is to reconstruct it so that you may confirm your identification and ascertain other things about the fragment such as its original size. In order to do this I use Microsoft Word and/or Photoshop (I have also used Quark XPress for this step) to see how the text lines up with the fragment. So, for example, with the smaller Leviticus fragment I imported Hebrew text of Lev 23:38-39 (without pointing) into Word and then adjusted the right-hand margin until the text lined up in accordance with the fragment. In the case of the smaller fragment, the text lined up quite nicely, producing lines of ca. 22-28 letterspaces:

My reconstruction shows the extant Leviticus 23:38 and 39 in bold black type with an outline of the fragment placement. The space at the top of the fragment preserves part of the top margin of the scroll (the dark spot near the top of the fragment is likely an ink dot or a blemish on the leather).
Here is a translation with the extant words in bold:

38 …and apart from all your votive offerings, and apart from all your freewill offerings, which you give to the Lord. 39 Now, the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when you have gathered in the produce of the land, you shall keep the festival of the Lord, lasting seven days; a complete rest on the first day, and a complete rest on the eighth day.

For the larger fragment, it was a bit more complicated since I was dealing with two columns. But once again, the text lined up very nicely producing lines of ca. 22-28 letterspaces for the right column and 20-25 for the left column, and a column height of ca. 33 lines.
Here is an image of the large fragment:
Here is my reconstruction of the columns:

My reconstruction shows the extant Leviticus 23:40-44 (middle of the right column) and 24:16-18 (left column) in bold black type with an outline of the fragment placement. Note that the smaller fragment also nicely fits at the top of the right column.
The one variant from the MT (as represented by BHS) is the plene spelling of בסכת at the end of verse 42 (the vav is in red). (click for larger image)
Here is a translation with the extant words in bold:
38 …and apart from all your votive offerings, and apart from all your freewill offerings, which you give to the Lord. 39 Now, the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when you have gathered in the produce of the land, you shall keep the festival of the Lord, lasting seven days; a complete rest on the first day, and a complete rest on the eighth day.

41You shall keep it as a festival to the Lord seven days in the year; you shall keep it in the seventh month as a statute forever throughout your generations. 42 You shall live in booths for seven days; all that are citizens in Israel shall live in booths, 43 so that your generations may know that I made the people of Israel live in booths when I brought them out of the land of Egypt: I am the Lord your God. 44 Thus Moses declared to the people of Israel the appointed festivals of the Lord.
16One who blasphemes the name of the Lord shall be put to death; the whole congregation shall stone the blasphemer. Aliens as well as citizens, when they blaspheme the Name, shall be put to death. 17 Anyone who kills a human being shall be put to death. 18 Anyone who kills an animal shall make restitution for it, life for life.
N.B. For a detailed reconstruction, you would have to do much more than just count letters. You would need to consider the widths of different letters in the scroll’s script. For example, even on these fragments it is clear that the י yods and ו vavs take much less space than the sins and ב bets. For more detail on calculating letter widths and scroll reconstruction in general, see Edward D. Herbert, Reconstructing Biblical Dead Sea Scrolls: A New Method Applied to the Reconstruction of 4QSama (Brill, 1997; Buy from Amazon.caBuy from Amazon.com). You would also need to check to see if these verses are extant in any other scrolls from Qumran; in this case you would want to double check your text with 4QLevb (as it turns out these particular words are not found in 1QLevb).

STEP 3: Description

The third step is to describe your findings and if you were working with the original fragments, you would also provide a physical description. In this case, if the reconstruction is correct, the larger fragment would have been part of a scroll that was quite large. Based on this height and the number of lines per column, the scroll itself would have been on the large size for scrolls found at Qumran and likely contained the complete book of Leviticus, if not the entire Torah/Pentateuch (see Emanuel Tov, “Scribal Practices and the Physical Aspects of the Dead Sea Scrolls” in The Bible as Book: The Manuscript Tradition [John L. Sharpe and Kimberly Van Kampen, eds.; 1998] 9-33; Buy from Amazon.caBuy from Amazon.com).
The nature and type of the leather would also have to be ascertained. While one news report identified the material as “deer hide,” most other authentic scrolls were made from the skins of sheep and goats. While the fragments were not tested, Eshel himself was pretty sure that they were either goat or sheep skin.
An examination of the paleography (the style of writing) is consistent with post-Herodian scripts (end of the first century C.E.), including other scrolls from the Bar Kokhba era, such as the Psalms scroll from the Cave of Letters.
The fragments do not give us much in terms of variant readings. The fragments follow the Masoretic text with one exception: at the end of v. 42 the larger fragment has בסכות instead of בסכת, both “booths” (indicated in red type on the larger reconstruction). This is a minor spelling difference, much like the difference between the Canadian spelling of “honour” and the American “honor.” (The fact that the Samaritan Pentateuch also reads בסכות is inconsenquential as it consistently uses the plene spelling throughout).

Conclusions

Reconstructing scrolls with biblical studies software and imaging programs takes a considerable amount of work. I personally find the work interesting (even fascinating), which explains why I bothered to write up this analysis! What I find amazing is how the first generation of scroll scholars did so much ground-breaking work without this technology!
In regards to the two Leviticus fragments, my hunch is that they are authentic. If not, then my hat goes off to the person or persons who produced such fine forgeries!

Posted in Dead Sea Scrolls, Hanan Eshel, Leviticus, Leviticus Scroll, News | 2 Comments »

New Photograph of Leviticus Scroll and News Updates

17th July 2005

While the news of the recently acquired scroll fragments of the book of Leviticus has spread to most news services, almost all of them are still reproducing the Associated Press article by Danielle Haas (e.g., The Jerusalem Post, among others). Agence France-Presse (AFP) has also now released a story on the scroll, though it has less details than the AP one. The AFP story did, however, come with a new photgraph of Israeli professor Hanan Eshel holding pictures of the scroll fragments (see picture to the right).

Bibliobloggers have also commented on the scrolls, focusing primarily on questions surrounding its discovery. Ed Cook at Ralph the Sacred River has some random thoughts on the scrolls, while Joe Weaks at the Macintosh Biblioblog cautions us to not get too excited as it very well may be a forgery. Jim Davila at Paleojudaica has responded to both blog entries here.

UPDATES: See here for more up-to-date blog entries on the Leviticus scroll fragments.

Posted in Dead Sea Scrolls, Hanan Eshel, Leviticus Scroll, News | Comments Off

Leviticus Scroll Fragment Update and Analysis

16th July 2005

News Updates

There are now numerous news sources covering the two new scroll fragments containing portions of Leviticus 23 and 24. Most of them rehash the original Associated Press story by Danielle Haas available here. Here are some excerpts:

Archaeologist and Bible scholar Steven Pfann said he had not seen the fragments. If authenticated, they would “in general not be doing more than confirming the character of the material that we have from the southern part of the Judean wilderness up until today.” But “what’s interesting and exciting is that this is a new discovery,” Pfann added. “This is the first time we’ve seen anything from the south since the 1960s.”

The finding constitutes the 15th scroll fragments found in the area from the same period of the Jewish “Bar Kochba” revolt against the Romans, and the first to be discovered with verses from Leviticus, Eshel said.

Anaylsis of the Fragments

Most of the reports noted that the fragments contained part of the book of Leviticus with a few narrowing it down to chapter 23. My own analysis of the fragments confirms that identification with the addition of a bit of chapter 24 included.

Fragment 1


The large fragment (pictured above) contains parts of Leviticus 23:43-44 (right column) and 24:16-18 (left column). While I didn’t produce a graphic reconstruction of this larger fragment for this blog entry (needed sleep!), the verses from the right column read as follows (extant words are bolded):

41You shall keep it as a festival to the Lord seven days in the year; you shall keep it in the seventh month as a statute forever throughout your generations. 42 You shall live in booths for seven days; all that are citizens in Israel shall live in booths, 43 so that your generations may know that I made the people of Israel live in booths when I brought them out of the land of Egypt: I am the Lord your God. 44 Thus Moses declared to the people of Israel the appointed festivals of the Lord.

The second column contains a few words from Lev 24:16-18 as follows:

16One who blasphemes the name of the Lord shall be put to death; the whole congregation shall stone the blasphemer. Aliens as well as citizens, when they blaspheme the Name, shall be put to death. 17 Anyone who kills a human being shall be put to death. 18 Anyone who kills an animal shall make restitution for it, life for life.

This reconstruction produces column widths ranging from ca. 20-25 letterspaces and a column height of ca. 30 lines. It appears to follow the Masoretic text with the exception of the plene spelling of בסכת at the end of verse 42 (line 5).

Fragment 2

The second smaller fragment (the colour picture above) contains a number of words from Leviticus 23:38 and 39. More specifically, the fragment can be reconstructed as follows:

Line 1: …]ד כל נדריכ×?[... "apart from all your votive offerings"
Line 2: ...] תנו ליהוה[... "you give to the LORD"
Line 3: ...]שביעי [… “seventh”

The verses read:

38 apart from the sabbaths of the Lord, and apart from your gifts, and apart from all your votive offerings, and apart from all your freewill offerings, which you give to the Lord. 39 Now, the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when you have gathered in the produce of the land, you shall keep the festival of the Lord, lasting seven days; a complete rest on the first day, and a complete rest on the eighth day.

The above reconstruction of this fragment yields column widths of ca. 22-27 letterspaces, which is consonant with the first fragment (It is not possible to estimate the column height based on this fragment alone). The extant words in this fragment are identitical with the Masoretic text as represented in BHS.

Final Thoughts
While this scroll does not contain any variant readings in these verses of Leviticus, it does contribute to our understanding of the significance of the MT and the book of Leviticus for second-Temple Judaism. Let’s hope that the Dead Sea area will uncover even more such finds!

In regards to the speculation in the news story whether this scroll is a forgery, I would be quite surprised if it is for a number of reasons. First, it doesn’t look like a fake; the script and the wear on the fragments is consistent with other scrolls from this period (at least as much as can be discerned from the images). So, if it is a fake, it is a good fake! Second, if it is a fake, then, why? Why would someone forge such a small fragment of such a mundane passage of Scripture? I would bet my shekels that the tests will prove its authenticity. Until then, we’ll have to wait and see.

UPDATES: See here for more up-to-date blog entries on the Leviticus scroll fragments.

Posted in Dead Sea Scrolls, Hanan Eshel, Leviticus Scroll, News | Comments Off

Pictures of Newly Uncovered Leviticus Scroll

15th July 2005

Here are some pictures of the fragments of the Leviticus scroll from Associated Press:


From my own quick analysis, this fragment appears to contain parts of Leviticus 23:43-44 (right column) and 24:16-18 (left column). The column widths range from 20-25 letterspaces, with a column height of ca. 30 lines. It appears to follow the MT text.

Here is the accompanying text from AP:

This photo made available by Israeli archeologist Chanan Eshel on Friday, July 15, 2005, shows a fragment of an ancient Torah scroll containing verses from the Book of Leviticus, said to have been found last year in a ‘refugee’ cave in Nachal Arugot, a canyon near the Dead Sea. Eshel, an archaeologist from Tel Aviv’s Bar Ilan University said Friday, July 15, 2005, that the discovery of two fragments of nearly 2,000 year-old parchment scroll from the Dead Sea area gave hope to biblical and archaeological scholars, frustrated by a dearth of material unearthed in the region in recent years, that the Judean Desert could yet yield further treasure. (AP Photo, Ho)

UPDATES: See here for more up-to-date blog entries on the Leviticus scroll fragments.

Posted in Dead Sea Scrolls, Hanan Eshel, Leviticus Scroll, News | Comments Off

New “Dead Sea Scroll” Fragments of Leviticus Surfaces

15th July 2005

A post to the Biblical Studies email list by Yitzhak Sapir reports on the discovery of two small fragments of a scroll containing portions of Leviticus 23. Here is the post:

Walla News, apparently reporting an article from Yediot Ahronot, reports that in the past year a small piece of scroll found at Nahal Arugot, near Ein Gedi, was purchased for $3000 by Prof. Hanan Eshel of Bar Ilan. Originally, Prof. Eshel refused to appraise the scroll when he was first asked to do so in August 2004, although he did photograph it at this time. When he came upon it again, it was near crumbling state, and he purchased it and turned it over to Amir Ganor of the Antiquities Authority, who are trying to locate the thieves. It consists of two pieces of deer-hide scroll, about 35 square cms, containing portions of verses from Leviticus 23, dealing with the Feast of Tabernacles, and differing from the MT only in that the scroll misses a single holam. It is dated to the Bar Kokhba revolt days. Prof. Eshel is calling for searching again for more scrolls which may still lay hidden among the caves in the area.

I have not been able to find out anything more on this scroll, but as soon as I have more information I will post an update.

UPDATE: Jim West on Biblical Theology blog also noted this discovery here, and in an update links to the following English-language article from the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Online: “Bedouin wanders across Biblical manuscript.” Here are some excerpts from the article:

Fragments of a Biblical manuscript dating back to the last Jewish revolt against Roman rule in 135 AD Judaea, have been uncovered near the Dead Sea. After four decades with a dearth of new finds, archaeologists had resigned themselves to believing the desert caves in the modern-day West Bank had already yielded all their secrets from the Roman era. “It’s simply sensational, a dream come true,” archaeology professor Hanan Eshel, a Biblical specialist at Israel’s Bar Ilan University, said. For the past 20 years, he has scoured the Judaean desert around the Dead Sea, overturning stone after stone in search of Biblical parchments. He has been trumped by Bedouin, who stumbled across the miniature fragments last August. Only a few centimetres long, the pieces contain extracts in Hebrew from the Biblical Book of Leviticus. Damaged by bat droppings and lying under a film of dirt in a cave near the Ein Gedi oasis, the Bedouin pocketed the manuscripts and began an arduous bidding process with Professor Eshel. “Thanks to this find, we now know a little more about the troubled period that gave rise to the Jewish revolt against the Romans,” the Professor said.
….
The fragments have been further damaged by the Bedouin, who glued them together and stowed the whole thing in aluminium foil. It was in this state that Professor Esher found and bought them for $US3,000, beating down the Bedouins’ original asking price of $US20,000. “Despite all this, we can identify the Hebrew letters,” he said. He points out words from Leviticus that relate to the escape of the Israelites from Egypt and the building of temporary shanty houses in the desert.

UPDATES: See here for more up-to-date blog entries on the Leviticus scroll fragments.

Posted in Dead Sea Scrolls, Hanan Eshel, Leviticus, Leviticus Scroll, News | Comments Off

Noteworthy Commentary on the Psalms Published

15th July 2005

There are a number of excellent commentaries on the book of Psalms. Most of the commentaries published recently, however, have either been limited in scope (almost all being one volume) and/or have targeted a more popular audience. This makes the publication of Hossfeld and Zenger’s commentary on the book of Psalms in the Hermeneia series all the more noteworthy.

Frank-Lothar Hossfeld and Erich Zenger. Psalms 2.
Hermeneia: A Critical and Historical Commentary on the Bible. Fortress, 2005.
Buy from Amazon.caBuy from Amazon.com

Hossfeld and Zenger are two of the top scholars working on the psalms in Germany today. Their research is well-known both on the continent and internationally and is characterized by attention to detail and a comprehensive grasp of both primary and secondary literature. Their approach is multifaceted, though they have been leaders in the new emphasis on the redaction and editing of the book of Psalms.

This first volume (covering Psalms 51-100) is a translation of their volume in the Herders theologischer Kommentar zum Alten Testament series (Buy from Amazon.caBuy from Amazon.com), which is a first-rate critical commentary on the Psalms. As such, it is volume 2 of a three-volume work: volume 3 (Psalms 101-150) will be published next, followed by volume 1 (Psalms 1-50), which will include the comprehensive introduction. Their more popular commentaries in Die Neue Echter Bibel series are also worthy of consideration for those who can read German:

Frank-Lothar Hossfeld and Erich Zenger. Die Psalmen I. Psalm 1-50.
Die Neue Echter Bibel. Echter, 1993.
Buy from Amazon.caBuy from Amazon.com

Frank-Lothar Hossfeld and Erich Zenger. Die Psalmen II. Psalm 51 – 100.
Die Neue Echter Bibel. Echter, 2002.
Buy from Amazon.caBuy from Amazon.com

Frank-Lothar Hossfeld is Professor of Old Testament at the University of Bonn, Germany. He is the author of Der Dekalog (Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1982) and Untersuchungen zu Komposition und Theologie des Ezechielbuches (Echter, 1977). Erich Zenger is Professor of Old Testament at the University of Muenster, Germany. He is the author of numerous works, including To Begin with, God Created (Michael Glazier, 2000), and A God of Vengeance (WJK, 1996).

This commentary is a must-have for all scholars interested in the book of Psalms. Look for my full review in the Journal of Hebrew Scriptures. For a fairly comprehensive survey of commentaries on the book of Psalms, see my Old Testament Commentary Survey: Psalms.

Posted in Uncategorized | 1 Comment »

Hussein and Kovacs: Twins Seperated at Birth?

14th July 2005

In line with my previous post on Kidman and DiCaprio, I came across these pictures of Saddam Hussein and Ernie Kovacs (as Percy Dovetonsils) and thought I would do another “Twins Separated at Birth” feature. So what do you think?

Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off